Trailing Penguins in Patagonia

Expedition Briefing


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COVID-19 Enhanced Health and Safety Measure

This project has been amended to incorporate several health and safety measures to allow responsible fielding of teams during the COVID-19 pandemic. Please refer to the COVID Disclosure Form for more details. 

Before Fielding 
  • Vaccination against COVID-19 is required for all participants. Staying up to date with your vaccinations, including receiving booster doses if available, is strongly encouraged. 
  • Become familiar with and abide by the local COVID requirements up to date vaccinations, including boosters, mandatory quarantine, or other guidelines. 
  • Do not travel to your Earthwatch expedition or program if you: 
    • are experiencing symptoms consistent with COVID-19 (cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, fever, chills, muscle pain, sore throat, or new loss of taste or smell), 
    •  are confirmed or suspected as having COVID-19 within the past 10 days
    • have been in close contact with someone suspected or confirmed as having COVID-19 in the past 10 days 
  • You are highly encouraged to take a COVID-19 test one day before or the morning of your rendezvous, before meeting up with your team.
While in the Field 
  • Face masks will be required in line with local regulations and/or when instructed by project leadership. In areas or on projects where mask use is no longer required, the use of face masks will be optional. Any individual who wishes to continue to mask will be supported in that decision. 
  • Participants and project staff will continue to wash or sanitize hands frequently and maintain physical distance whenever possible. 
  • All team members will be asked to monitor their own health through daily health checks. 
  • Recreational activities may be limited or require additional face mask requirements to reduce the risk of exposure to team members or to the local community.
  • Meals and activities will take place outside whenever possible. 
  • Ventilation will be increased indoors and within enclosed vehicles whenever possible. 

The Research

The Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) breeds along both coasts of South America. The northernmost limit on the Atlantic coast is at 41°S, and on the Pacific coast extends its breeding distribution to 29°S. On the Atlantic coast, their colonies are also located in insular areas. The estimated world population ranges between 2.2 and 3.2 million mature individuals, of which 900,000 breed along the Argentinean coast, making it the most abundant breeding seabird in Patagonia. In recent decades, population and distributional changes have occurred in the breeding meta-populations of Patagonia Argentina, with some colonies declining, others increasing at high rates and a few newly established colonies. 

Along the coast of Patagonia Argentina, an increase in the number of breeding pairs (by as much as 68% per annum) has been recorded in colonies in the north of its distributional range. In contrast, Punta Tombo (the second largest colony in the world) decreased by 22 % in the number of breeding pairs between 1987 and 2008, as did other colonies in central Patagonia. Sources of these variations have been attributed to favorable at-sea environmental conditions in northern Patagonia (added to density-dependent processes), and more erratic and variable conditions in the center of the Magellanic penguin breeding distribution. 

The penguin colony of Cabo dos Bahías, (placed in the North of San Jorge Gulf) is located at the center of the distributional range of the species in coastal Patagonia, where colonies are declining. Cabo dos Bahías is declining at a 5.5% annual rate. Penguins at this colony are exposed to variable environmental conditions which affect prey distribution, influencing penguins provisioning their offspring at this colony. Although the precise drivers of potential prey species abundance are poorly understood, we reasoned that even small-scale changes in oceanographic conditions around Cabo dos Bahías could affect the availability of the main food sources, and this would be reflected in the foraging and diving behavior of penguins breeding at this colony. Moreover, factors such as depredation, or extreme environmental conditions are not yet well understood and could be adding additional pressure to this colony.

Researchers and volunteers will use different methodologies to try to understand the sources of the variations occurring in Cabo dos Bahias. A detailed monitoring of the penguins and their offspring during the breeding seasons added to the use of technology (i.e., behavioral recorders that can record the position and diving behavior of these seabirds throughout the breeding season and camera traps to record depredation across all age classes) will help to study how these birds breed, hunt for food at sea, and interact with predators. This will in turn provide key data to understand their breeding biology, foraging behavior, and how the penguins cope with environmental variability. 

Research Aims

The key objectives for this project are as follows:

  1. Determine how penguins use marine spaces during different stages of their life at the ocean.
  2. Study the at-sea behavior of penguins to understand their foraging strategies.
  3. Measure reproductive success throughout the years (as a measurement of population health).
  4. Determine the reproductive population size and productivity of the colony.
  5. Study the relationship between productivity of the colony and at-sea behavior. 
  6. Study the marine environment used by the penguins to understand their distribution.
  7. Assess how anthropogenic (human-induced) changes to the environment impact this species.
  8. Evaluate the interaction between penguins and their predators to understand how predation influences the penguin colony (regarding breeding success, loss of breeding pairs, and shape of the colony).

To achieve the research aims for this expedition, teams will carefully monitor the penguin colony and deploy data loggers. Remote sensing technologies will be used, including GPS loggers that record time, latitude, longitude, and speed, as well as temperature depth recorders that will collect information on pressure (i.e., depth) and temperature to study detailed diving behavior and environmental conditions. Camera traps will be located within the colony to capture predatory events or possible predators that consume penguins (eggs, chicks and/or adults). Additionally, observation points will be placed in different sections of the colony to record predation. 

Teams will mostly monitor penguins' nests to record the reproductive biology (presence of eggs or chicks) and select adults to be deployed. Some teams will also help with the yearly census of the colony to estimate breeding pairs at this colony. They will also be involved in deployment and maintenance of camera traps. 

How You Will Help

For this project to be successful, we need your data collection support by carrying out a detailed monitoring of the colony. For this, we need to have a team working daily on site to first map the colony and mark individuals and nests. After that, daily checks of marked nests and breeding pairs must be carried out to monitor the reproductive status and reproductive success of adults, to monitor hatchling growth and survival, and to determine the duration of the foraging trips of adults. This exhaustive monitoring will allow us to precisely select the individuals that will be deployed, significantly decreasing the probability of losing devices at sea. The activities are very easy to learn and do not require previous knowledge on the topic. Volunteers will be directly involved in the following activities:

  • Mapping the colony, high-density areas within the colony, and the individual nests. Volunteers who participate in mapping will see varied terrain, wildlife, and views of the beautiful Patagonian landscape.
  • Marking nests selected to monitor throughout the breeding season.
  • Collaborate in marking adults permanently using PIT tags (i.e., notes of numbers, locations, etc.).
  • Perform daily checks on the presence/absence of ID adults in the nest to determine duration of foraging trips before deployment of individuals.
  • Perform daily checks (direct observation) of every marked nest (number of eggs, chicks).
  • Collaborate in the process of marking and measuring eggs from specific nests.
  • Collaborate in the measuring and weighing of chicks from specific nests
  • Collaborate in deployment of adults and recovery of devices.
  • Monitoring the nests of deployed individuals (2 or 3 times a day) to ensure the recovery of devices.
  • Collaborate in maintenance of camera traps (replace batteries, check functioning, etc.)
  • Data entry: specifically, data will be updated every day to have access to up-to-date information on the breeding status of every marked nest and breeding pair.

IMPORTANT: While you are welcome to document your experience through images and videos on your personal devices, all documentation of research tasks that involve animal handling are strictly prohibited to share on social media or other platforms. Please keep in mind that all handling of animals is strictly related to scientific purposes and not recreational. It is important that we do not promote the handling of penguins and other wildlife outside the carefully monitored research settings that Earthwatch and our network of supported and professional scientists oversee.

Life in the Field

The day you arrive to the project, you will have an orientation that includes:

  • Safety on site and during fieldwork (going through our emergency response plan).
  • You will be introduced to the biologist that will be working with you.
  • History of the project
  • Training on how to use field equipment (Scanner for PIT tags, GPS, equipment for marking penguins, etc.)
  • Training on how to collect data in the field (fill up field books and data organization).
  • The next day of your arrival will be the first day in the field where you will have onsite training.

Other educational opportunities will happen throughout the expedition, covering topics such as penguin ecology and conservation in Patagonia; methodological theory and practice; basic field skills, Patagonian species identification, and more. On a typical research day, you’ll have a midday break. The team may have a short recreational activity in the middle of the expedition (since you are in a remote area and your expedition is only one week, this may be visiting a nearby lookout, a picnic, or visiting another area of the park for a few hours).


Weather and research needs can lead to changes in the daily schedule. We appreciate your cooperation and understanding.

Project activities will also vary seasonally. Below is an outline of what is likely to happen on each team, but the exact schedule will depend on the project’s current needs and will be set at the start of each expedition. The nesting season is also variable year to year, so some activities may shift forward or back based on when the egg-laying season begins.

During October the research tasks focus mainly on the setup of the project, activities may vary depending on the timing of the animals. You will help in mapping the colony, marking, and mapping nests. During that time, we also identify individuals that were tagged in previous years and mark new breeding adults with microchips. In addition, we search for “lost” penguins (animals that did not arrive to their nests from previous years). In October, egg laying begins so you will help to measure and mark those eggs. This is added to the fact that the experimental nests must be checked every day to record lay dates (or egg loss). You will also help attach loggers to penguins that will start incubation trips. Also, at the end of October/beginning of November the census of the colony takes place. During the census, you may have the opportunity to visit the complete colony and scenery that is not seen during the rest of the season. 

During November egg hatching begins and we will check nests every day, record hatching dates and measure and weight chicks. This includes long days in the field.

During December, deployment and recovery of behavioral loggers starts (recording foraging trips of adults). We will continue with nest monitoring, also measuring and weighing chicks from experimental nests.

Data entry is an important part of our work. At the end of the day, we will ask all teams to help with data entry (data collected during the day) 

  • Day 1: Meet and travel to Camarones, lunch with team, introduction and orientation, field training in methodology and safety while in the field.
  • Days 2–5: On-site training and fieldwork: Depending on team, colony mapping, marking of nests, nests monitoring, chick monitoring and device deployment and recovery.
  • Day 6: Fieldwork, final team dinner, pack
  • Day 7: Breakfast, departure from field site to airport

Accommodations and Food

* Please note that not every expedition has couples’ or singles accommodations available. Please call or email Earthwatch to check for availability prior to reserving your space(s) on the team.

During the expedition, your team will be based in the town of Camarones, a small, remote town on the edge of the park.


The team will be staying in a house. Rooms will be shared by 2–5 people, depending on the number of team members and the total number of males and females on your team. The house has a comfortable kitchen, and one shared bathroom with flushable toilet, shower, and sink. Beds, pillows, blankets, and sheets are provided. Single rooms are not possible and couples’ rooms can be difficult to accommodate so are not guaranteed.

* Earthwatch will honor each person’s assertion of gender identity, respectfully and without judgment. For both teen and adult teams, where logistics dictate single-sex accommodations or other facilities, participant placements will be made in accordance with the gender identity the participant specified on their Earthwatch Participant form and/or preferences indicated in discussions with Earthwatch.


Bathroom facilities include a hot shower and flush toilet. There is only one bathroom at the accommodations that will be shared by up to six people.


The house has electricity and plugs for charging camera batteries etc. Please bring the appropriate converters and adapters for Argentine electrical outlets (220-240v, 50 Hz.). You will find both “Type I” IRAM-2073 and “Type C '' Europlug type in Argentina.


The cellphone reception in the town of Camarones is spotty and will vary depending on your cell phone service provider. There is cell phone service at the field site, which is mainly used for emergencies or coordinating the research teams. The Internet could be scattered and work poorly at the accommodations. Although some places in town may have Internet occasionally (i.e., restaurant, coffee shop) the connection is very poor, therefore we strongly recommend making sure you communicate with relatives at home from Trelew upon arrival in the airport. The Airport has free Internet you may use on arrival day. You may not be able to communicate via the Internet while in Camarones, which is very remote.

The research team recommends you and your relatives back home to download the application for cell phones “WhatsApp” ( This app allows you to send text messages, voice messages, pictures, and short videos (to other phones with the app) with a very scattered Internet connection and with no cell reception.

Please note: Personal communication with outsiders is not always possible while participating in an expedition. Earthwatch encourages volunteers to minimize outgoing calls and immerse themselves in the experience; likewise, family and friends should restrict calls to urgent messages only.


The field site is about a 40-minute drive from the town of Camarones. The journey is on a dirt road.


Volunteers will help themselves to a continental style breakfast in the cabins. A local cook will prepare local Argentinean food for packed lunches in the field, and a nearby restaurant (pre- arranged by field staff) will provide dinner. Argentine cuisine consists of a lot of meat and in the remote, small town of Camarones fresh fruits and vegetables can be hard to come by. Please note that dinner in Argentina is usually very late, between 8–10:00 p.m. You will generally eat at 8:30 p.m. for Earthwatch teams. There will be opportunities to buy snacks in Camarones, and some will be provided to tide you over until the late dinner. Eating and drinking is an important cultural activity in Argentina, and the team will enjoy social, group meals. 

You may want to bring supplemental snacks if you have any food preferences. This list is intended to provide a general idea of food types, but it is very important that volunteers be flexible and keep in mind that vegetables and fruits in a remote area of Patagonia are very difficult to come by. 


The following are examples of foods you may find in the field. Variety depends on availability. We appreciate your flexibility.

  • Breakfast: Cereal, fruit, toast/bread, jam, tea, coffee, hot breakfast, such as eggs
  • Lunch: Local cuisine, Empanadas, vegetable, and meat tarts (tartas), sandwiches
  • Dinner: Local cuisine, chicken, steaks, pasta, pizzas
  • Snacks: Cookies, crackers, cereal bars, fruit
  • Beverages: Clean drinking water available on site.

Please alert Earthwatch to any special dietary requirements (e.g., diabetes, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, nut, or other food allergies, vegetarian or vegan diets) as soon as possible, and note them in the space provided on your volunteer forms.

The project staff can accommodate most diets with advance notice; however, strict vegan diets are not possible to adhere to within local cuisine. For celiac disease the team will provide food to be cooked in the house to avoid cross contamination. Although the project can accommodate vegetarians, please keep in mind that food may not be very diverse. Lactose free diets are possible to accommodate. Accommodating special diets is not guaranteed and can be very difficult due to availability of food, location of field sites, and other local conditions.


Alcohol consumption is not permitted by minors or on teen teams regardless of local law. It is permitted on adult teams and is available for purchase in Camarones. Wine is a common and traditional accompaniment to meals in Argentina.

Project Conditions


For weather and region-specific information, please visit and then search "Camarones, Provincia del Chubut"

Essential Eligibility Requirements

All participants must be able to:

  • Provide passport numbers to Earthwatch before July 30, 2023, to be included in the research permit to enter the natural reserve. 
  • Walk over rough, uneven terrain with areas of dense, thorny vegetation, animal holes that can be hard to spot, any sometimes rocky, hilly slopes for up to five kilometers (3.0 miles) per day and generally up to seven hours per day an average rate of one kilometer (0.6 miles) in 15 minutes, with minimal fatigue and without a hiking/walking stick.
  • Bend up and down; crouch comfortably for up to five hours per day while performing nest work.
  • Without assistance, get up and down near the penguin nests. For most of the task’s volunteers are required to sit on the ground next to penguin nests.
  • Without assistance, climb in and out of high clearance project vehicles, which may include trucks.
  • Enjoy being outdoors all day in all types of weather, exposed to very strong sun, heat and high winds (and high wind chill) for long periods of time.
  • Carry personal daily supplies up to five kilograms (11 pounds), such as water, and some small field equipment (e.g., GPS, nest checking pole).
  • Sit or ride in project vehicles with seat belts fastened and near other team members while traveling over dirt roads for long periods of time, up to 45 minutes per drive
  • Be comfortable with potentially very dusty car rides as roads can be very dusty due to the dry environment. 
  • See clearly (with or without corrective lenses) close up to read research instruments.
  • Keep quiet, stand respectful distances from animals while observing them and working in the colony.
  • Enjoy being outdoors in the potential presence of wild animals.
  • Follow verbal and/or visual instructions independently or with the assistance of a companion. 
  • Take an active role in your own safety by recognizing and avoiding hazards if and when they arise (including, but not limited to, those described in Earthwatch materials and safety briefings). Always comply with project staff instructions and recommended safety measures. 
  • Be able to effectively communicate to the staff if you are experiencing distress or need assistance. 
  • Be able to get along with a variety of people from different backgrounds and ages, often in close proximity, for the duration of your team. 
  • Be comfortable being surrounded by a language and/or culture that is different from your own. 

Health and Safety


If medical advice is required, there is a small rural hospital in Camarones, just a few minutes from the accommodations. There are hospitals in Trelew and Puerto Madryn, which are 3 and 3.5 hours away from Camarones, respectively, but much further from the field sites.

Earthwatch has a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week emergency hotline number. Someone is always on call to respond to messages that come into our live answering service.


Please be sure your routine immunizations are up to date (for example: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) and you have the appropriate vaccinations for your travel destination. Medical decisions are the responsibility of each volunteer and his or her doctor. Visit the Center for Disease Control and Prevention or the World Health Organization for guidance on immunizations.

If traveling from countries or regions where yellow fever is endemic, you must have a certificate of vaccination.

Vaccination against COVID-19 is required for all participants. Staying up to date with your vaccinations, including receiving booster doses as applicable is strongly encouraged. 

Project Risks and Precautions


The roads from Trelew to Camarones are paved and generally in very good condition at the time of printing of this briefing. At the study site, roads will be dirt, gravel, or corrugated and at times bumpy and/or dusty. Everyone will wear seat belts whenever the vehicle is in motion. Speeds will be kept to the posted limit traveling from Trelew and at 50-km/ hr. (30 mph) in the study site. Only authorized, insured, experienced staff will drive. Volunteers are not permitted to drive. We will avoid night transportation.


The terrain in the colony is varied. There are hills, small shrubs, thorny vegetation, and loose rocks. In a few areas there may be a steep slope. There are also many holes in the ground that volunteers can trip on and injure themselves or a penguin. Field staff will caution participants and instruct them how to traverse the colony. Participants must walk carefully, and we recommend wearing hiking boots with ankle support. Hiking poles are not allowed because they can damage nests and injure penguins. Inform a staff member if you do not feel well, or do not feel comfortable with certain terrain.


You must bring clothing layers appropriate for mostly low and sometimes high temperatures. Wind resistant layers are very helpful to stop the wind-chill, and sun hats with a tie (so they do not blow off your head). Staff will monitor weather and wind conditions and plan field tasks accordingly. Use glasses and long sleeves if dust and or sand can be lifted by wind. Secure all gear while working at the field site and be aware of any nearby loose debris. Seek shelter in extreme wind conditions.


You must drink plenty of water throughout the day and to bring at least one liter of water into the field each day. You must wear high-factor sunscreen (40 SPF or higher) and appropriate clothing, including sunglasses, a wide-brimmed hat and/ or scarf. A headband may be useful to cover your ears. You shouldn’t overwork when jet lagged or tired—inform a staff member when feeling tired or ill. Extra sunscreen will be available in the first aid kits. Take regular breaks as needed.


There are snakes and spiders in some areas of the field site. You must avoid any contact with spiders and snakes, and to not attempt to handle or disturb them if found. Bring personal medications in the event of a reaction to a bite or sting (at least two Epi-Pens if you have an Epi-Pen prescription for an allergy, antihistamines, etc.) as appropriate. Inform staff if you are allergic to anything and of where your medication is kept.


You may participate in animal handling. Typically, this is only with penguin chicks, so risks are minimal. Potential risks are bites or scratches. If you participate, you’ll receive instructions and a safety briefing, and be supervised or assisted at all times. You may not handle animals unless under the direct supervision of trained project staff. Protective equipment (e.g., gloves) will be provided. Always wash your hands after handling an animal.


There are many wild animals in the study site. There is guanaco (a large, llama-like animal), rheas, sea birds, and several small mammals. The guanaco often pass by closely and in large herds; do not disturb them. 


Malaria and Zika are reported to be a low risk around the research site; however, it is found in the northern provinces of Argentina. If you plan additional travel in Argentina, speak with your doctor. The risk of these illnesses can be greatly reduced by taking precautions against mosquito bites (using insect repellent and wearing long-sleeved shirts and trousers in the evening). For Malaria, prophylactics are available.


A rabies vaccination is not compulsory for this expedition; you will not handle any rabies-carrying wildlife. However, you may wish to consult with your healthcare providers about the vaccine given that it is present in Argentina and Patagonia. Always avoid stray dogs. The rabies pre-exposure vaccination consists of three doses over a 28-day period. Please be sure to consult your physician or travel health clinic well before your expedition to ensure that you have time for the full vaccination series. If you have previously been vaccinated, a booster shot may be required. The pre-exposure vaccination does not eliminate the need for post-exposure medical attention and treatment, but it does provide additional protection against the disease in the event of a delay in treatment. In addition, bites or scratches should be immediately and thoroughly washed with soap, clean water, and a topical povidone-iodine solution or ethanol.


COVID-19 is an infectious disease. Although most people who have COVID-19 will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness, it can also cause severe illness and even death. Some people are at increased risk of severe illness. The COVID-19 virus spreads from person to person via close contact, primarily through exposure to the respiratory droplets of an infected person. Medication availability and treatment for COVID-19 varies from country to country and specific treatment options may not be possible in your destination.

Projects and participants fielding with Earthwatch commit to several enhanced safety measures as described in the COVID Disclosure Form. Enhanced safety measures may include physical distancing, wearing face masks, regular hand washing and surface sanitizing, heeding advice from project leadership or local authorities, adjusted logistics, and monitoring one’s own health throughout the expedition. If you get symptoms of COVID 19 or test positive while traveling you may be subject to quarantine and other local regulations that may disrupt your travel plans. Please plan for extended travel days.

Travel Planning


Hotel Libertador, Trelew Chubut, Argentina. 

It is recommended you arrive in Trelew the day prior to your team because the flights in and out of Trelew are canceled and changed frequently, so this way, you can book your flight at any time, and changes will not affect the start of the team. The team will also have a full day on Day 1.

* Additional information will be provided by Earthwatch to meet your team. Please do not book travel arrangements such as flights until you have received additional information from Earthwatch.


Earthwatch strongly recommends that travelers investigate their destination prior to departure. Familiarity with the destination’s entry/exit requirements, visas, local laws, and customs can go a long way to ensuring smooth travel. The U.S. Department of State's Traveler’s Checklist and Destination Guides are helpful resources. For LGBTI travelers, the U.S. Department of State's LGBTI Travelers page contains many useful tips and links.


You are responsible for reviewing and abiding by the local COVID guidelines and regulations for your destination. This may include proof of testing upon arrival or departure, up to date vaccinations against COVID-19, including boosters, mandatory quarantine, or other requirements.

For information regarding Patagonia, please visit: and

Entry visa requirements differ by country of origin, layover, and destination, and do change unexpectedly. For this reason, please confirm your visa requirements at the time of booking and, again, 90 days prior to travel. Please apply early for your visa (we recommend starting 6 months prior to the start of your expedition). Refunds will not be made for volunteers canceling due to not obtaining their visa in time to meet the team at the rendezvous. You can find up to date visa requirements at the following website:

If a visa is required, participants should apply for a TOURIST visa. Please note that obtaining a visa can take weeks or even months. We strongly recommend using a visa agency, which can both expedite and simplify the process.

Generally, passports must be valid for at least six months from the date of entry and a return ticket is required.


  • BirdLife International. 2020. Spheniscus magellanicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T22697822A157428850.
  • Blanco, G., Gallo, L., Pisoni, J., Dell’Omo, G., Gerez, N., Molina, G., et al. (2022). At-sea distribution, movements, and diving behavior of Magellanic penguins reflect small-scale changes in oceanographic conditions around the colony. Marine Biology 169(2), 1-13.
  • García-Borboroglu, P., Pozzi, L.M., Parma, A.M., Dell'Arciprete, P., and Yorio, P. (2022). Population distribution shifts of Magellanic Penguins in northern Patagonia, Argentina: Implications for conservation and management strategies. Ocean & Coastal Management 226, 106259. doi:
  • Capurro, A., E. Frere, M. Gandini, P. Gandini, T. Holik, V. Lichtschein, and P. D. Boersma. 1988. Nest Density and Population Size of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at Cabo Dos Bahias, Argentina. The Auk 105:585-588.
  • Del Caño, M., Quintana, F., Yoda, K., Dell’Omo, G., Blanco, G.S., and Gómez-Laich, A. (2021). Fine-scale body and head movements allow to determine prey capture events in the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). Marine Biology 168(6), 1-15.
  • Gómez-Laich, A., Wilson, R. P, Sala, J. E., Luzenti, A. and Quintana, F. 2015. Moving northward: comparison of the foraging effort of Magellanic penguins from three colonies of Northern Patagonia. Marine Biology. DOI. 10.1007/ s00227-015-2681-1.
  • Lewis, S., T. N. Sherratt, K. C. Hamer, and S. Wanless. 2001. Evidence of intra-specific competition for food in a pelagic seabird. Nature 412:816-818.
  • Pozzi, L.M., Borboroglu, P.G., Boersma, P.D., Pascual, M.A., 2015. Population Regulation in Magellanic Penguins: What Determines Changes in Colony Size? PLoS ONE 10, e0119002.
  • Sala, J. E., R. P. Wilson, E. Frere, and F. Quintana. 2012. Foraging effort in Magellanic penguins in coastal Patagonia, Argentina. Marine Ecology Progress Series 464:273-287.
  • Sala, J.E, Wilson, R.P, Frere, E. and Quintana, F. 2014. Flexible foraging for finding fish: variable diving patterns in Magellanic penguins from different colonies. Journal of Ornithology 155:801-817.
  • Wilson, R.P., Scolaro, J.A., Grémillet, D., Kierspel, M. A.M., Laurenti, S., Upton, J., Gallelli, H., Quintana, F., Frere, E., Muller, G., Straten, M.T., Zimmer, I., 2005. How do magellanic penguins cope with variability in their access to prey? Ecological Monographs 75, 379–401.
  • Wilson, R.P., Liebsch, N., Davies, I.M., Quintana, F., Weimerskirch, H., Storch, S., Lucke, K., Siebert, U., Zankl, S., Müller, G., Zimmer, I., Scolaro, A., Campagna, C., Plötz, J., Bornemann, H., Teilmann, J., McMahon, C.R., 2007. All at sea with animal tracks; methodological and analytical solutions for the resolution of movement. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 54, 193-210.
  • Yamamoto, T., Yoda, K., Blanco, G.S., and Quintana, F. (2019). Female-biased stranding in Magellanic penguins. Current Biology 29(1), R12-R13.
  • Falabella, V., Campagna, C., Croxall, J., 2009. Atlas del Mar Patagónico. Especies y espacios., Buenos Aires, Wildlife Conservation Society y BirdLife International.
  • Williams, T. D. The Penguins Spheniscidae. Bird Families of the World. Oxford University Press; First Edition (May 18, 1995).
  • Guía para la Identificación de las AVES de Argentina & Uruguay 2011 (1.ª 1987). Tito Narosky & Dario Yzurieta. Vazquez Mazini Editores. ISBN 978-987-9132-27-2
  • Aves de Patagonia y Antártida.2004. Tito Narosky & Dario Yzurieta. Vazquez Mazini Editores. ISBN 987-9132-09-2
  • Mamíferos Marinos de Patagonia y Antártida. Ricardo Bastida y Diego Rodríguez. 2003. Vázquez Manzini Editores, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 208 pp.

For volunteers experiences in the project see: Trailing Penguins in Patagonia




Trailing Penguins in Patagonia Gallery


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