Tracking Sea Turtles in The Bahamas

Expedition Briefing

 

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The Research

The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and the more elusive hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) are in trouble (Wallace et al. 2001, Hamann et al. 2010). Even though the Bahamian government has made it illegal to catch them in the country’s waters, to save these endangered species from further decline, researchers need to ensure their habitats are protected from coastal development and other human activities.

In their juvenile years, green sea turtles primarily feed on seagrass found in shallow bays and mangroves (Bjorndal & Bolten 2010) and hawksbills primarily feed on sponges in coral reef habitats. Although scientists know that these habitats are critical for young turtles, they don’t know exactly how and why turtles choose them and move between them.

The seagrass beds, coral reefs, and mangrove creeks, where young turtles find food, vary in size, types of vegetation, presence of predators, and a host of other features. Presumably, turtles forage in habitats with the most optimal conditions. So what are these optimal conditions? You’ll help answer this crucial question by monitoring the abundance of turtles in different areas and tracking the physical features of habitats that attract the most turtles. Your participation will help researchers and policy makers create plans that will protect the right habitats from development.

Research Aims

By jumping in the water with these ancient creatures, you’ll contribute to a long-term understanding of how juvenile sea turtles develop, both as populations and as individuals. The research focuses on the following objectives:

  • Recording Sea Turtle Abundance and Distribution: Scientists know that shallow waters serve as important feeding grounds for juvenile hawksbill and green sea turtles. But the characteristics of foraging grounds can vary greatly. You’ll count the number of sea turtles present across multiple foraging sites, the idea being that the best foraging sites will abound with turtles. The scientists are also interested in the presence of turtle disease in these areas.
  • Mapping Habitat and Food Resource Availability: To further investigate which factors influence where sea turtles choose to forage, you’ll help map food resources, such as seagrass and sponges, found in foraging sites. When compared with sea turtle numbers from the first objective, this information will help researchers understand how green sea turtles and hawksbills choose where to dine.
  • Long-Term Monitoring: Turtles travel throughout their lifetime. By tagging and monitoring their movements, scientists can determine what (and where) turtles eat while they grow (Bjorndal & Bolten 2000, Kubis et al. 2009). Researchers keep this account by periodically recapturing tagged turtles to collect tissue samples for chemical analysis. The analysis reveals what the turtle’s diet consists of and that information is used to assess which foraging sites the animal has visited. You will help scientists capture, tag, and release tagged turtles to help them achieve their long-term monitoring objective.
  • Determining Fine-Scale Behavior: Animal-borne cameras are useful tools to study marine megafauna. Through the use of a video camera, it is possible to gain a detailed understanding of sea turtle grazing and behavior. You will help scientists deploy cameras and then analyze the video footage.

How You Will Help

The role of an Earthwatch volunteer is unique – you are donating your time, money, and effort in the service of science. You can expect to make a meaningful contribution to your lead scientists’ work by assisting with various tasks relating to data collection. Each team is different, and based upon the needs of the scientists, the weather, the research schedule, and myriad other factors, here are some of the tasks we typically rely on volunteers to help accomplish:

  • Habitat Surveys: You’ll snorkel through sites where turtles feed to collect seafloor habitat data (e.g., percentage cover of seagrass, algae, sand, etc.) and determine physical characteristics such as depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen content, and mangrove root density. You’ll also collect plant tissue samples for chemical analysis and use GPS to identify locations of various sea floor characteristics. If you don’t want to snorkel, you can still help out with boat-based tasks such as data recording, measuring water depth, and handling the GPS instrument. Note, boats often can’t reach these sites, so volunteers should be willing to snorkel/stand in water during this activity.
  • Tagging Sea Turtles: You’ll have the chance to try two techniques for capturing and tagging turtles.
    • The first involves setting up a long seine net at the mouth of a tidal creek. Some volunteers will walk the creek in formation—called a “scare line”—to move turtles toward the net. When a turtle is caught, you’ll help the scientists measure and weigh it, tag it, and finally release it back into the water (for your safety and the accuracy of the data, you’ll only observe and record as scientists take tissue samples and measure turtle length).
    • The second technique gets you up close with turtles in the water. It’s also more strenuous, and is optional. From a boat driven by a project staff member, you’ll help look for sea turtles that surface from the water. When one is spotted, the boat will follow it until it tires out and slows down. Then, you or a teammate will enter the water and snorkel above the tired turtle until it comes up for air, at which point you’ll grab it under the two front flippers. The boat will pick up the swimmer and the turtle, and the team will take tissue samples and measure the turtle’s length and weight.
  • Data Management: You’ll also help with one of the pivotal steps in any scientific research: entering and analyzing data. In the evenings, or during unfavorable weather, you’ll transfer notes from the field into a database and help analyze camera videos.

As human development continues to shape the natural world that turtles thrive in, it’s critical to observe and understand their movements so that we can best protect the places they need most. Your participation in this expedition will provide a valuable contribution to this effort.

Life in the Field

You’ll work under the leadership of the Earthwatch scientists and other experienced staff members, who will oversee data collection during surveys. After eating breakfast and packing field lunches, you’ll spend your days traveling to various field sites around South Eleuthera and conducting sea turtle and habitat surveys either from a boat or the shoreline. In the evenings, you’ll assist with video analysis, and data entry. Most lunches will be in the field but all dinners will be back on campus. Participants will have time to rest and freshen up before dinner, taking turns to clean dishes after the meal. After any final tasks are complete, we will discuss the next day’s plan and there is the opportunity to hear about other research projects from the science team. You could also choose to star gaze, socialize with fellow teammates or retire early to reenergize for the next day.

The team will have the option for dinner at a local restaurant at least once to sample some local flavors. During the recreational day all participants will go by vehicle to various attractions along the island, that may include easily accessible caves, historical buildings, a nature preserve, local settlements and craft shops. Alcohol consumption is only permitted at CEI (prohibited at Camp Bahamas) in the evenings during recreational time or during group meals off campus.

Weather and research needs can lead to changes in the daily schedule. We appreciate your cooperation and understanding.

ITINERARY 
  • Day 1: Arrival in the late afternoon, dinner and then project orientation and settling in.
  • Day 2: Introduction to snorkeling, species identification and methodologies training.
  • Days 3–7: Data collection, fieldwork in mangrove creeks and beaches, including tagging turtles, and data entry at the end of each day. Earthwatch scientists will hold talks on project background as well as other aspects of marine biology in the evenings. One full day or half-day will be reserved for recreational time to visit other parts of the island, depending on the weather forecast.
  • Day 8: Final data collection, completion of outstanding data entry, team wrap-up and review of achievements, packing and dinner at a local restaurant.
  • Day 9: Early morning departure.

Accommodations and Food

* Please note that not every expedition has couples’ or single's accommodations available. Please call or email Earthwatch to check for availability prior to reserving your space(s) on the team.

LOCATION: CAPE ELEUTHERA INSTITUTE
SLEEPING

You’ll stay at Cape Eleuthera Institute in single-sex, dormitory-style rooms, each housing up to eight people. Every room contains twin bunk beds and basic shelving, electric ceiling fans, lights, and 110-volt outlets (you are welcome to bring electronic equipment). Pillows will be provided, but you need to bring your own your bedding (sheets, blankets, pillow cases, or sleeping bags) and towels. Couples and singles accommodations are not available.

Note: Team 5 in 2020 will be staying at CEI, but instead of dorm style accommodations, they will be housed at Hallig House, which has two twin beds per room. Volunteers will be split by gender. Couples and singles accommodations may be available.

* Earthwatch will honor each person’s assertion of gender identity, respectfully and without judgement. For both teen and adult teams, where logistics dictate single-sex accommodations or other facilities, participant placements will be made in accordance with the gender identity the participant specified on their Earthwatch Participant form and/or preferences indicated in discussions with Earthwatch.

BATHROOMS

Each dorm room has a communal toilet and washing area and multiple showers are available. Solar hot water heaters provide hot water, and we actively encourage water conservation.

Note: Hallig house also has en-suite bathrooms, and is also solar heated water.

ELECTRICITY

As mentioned above, each dormitory/facility contains electric ceiling fans, lights, and 110-volt outlets. You are welcome to bring any electronic equipment but no hairdryers.

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

CEI has phone facilities that may be used by volunteers by arrangement with CEI staff. Wireless Internet may be available (depending on group size). Mobile phone coverage varies in The Bahamas, but may be possible (while expensive) for some networks. You are free to bring your own cell phone.

Earthwatch encourages volunteers to minimize outgoing calls and immerse themselves in the experience; likewise, family and friends should restrict calls to urgent messages only. Emergency communications will be prioritized.

DISTANCE TO THE FIELD SITE

The field sites are close to CEI. It will typically take less than 45 minutes by boat or van to reach the mangrove creek sites.

FOOD AND WATER

Meals will be served buffet style in a central dining area, which is shared by all volunteers, staff, students, and researchers. Three meals a day will be prepared by local cooks. All guests help with basic kitchen cleaning duties on a rotating basis (once every few days). Snacks can be purchased from a store at the nearby marina.

The following are examples of foods you may find in the field. Variety depends on availability. We appreciate your flexibility.

  • Breakfast: Cereal, yogurt, toast, bagels, eggs, grits, seasonal fruits, fruit juice.
  • Lunch and Dinner: A mix of traditional Caribbean food (e.g., rice and beans accompanying meat or poultry dishes), fresh salads, and American food (e.g., pasta, soup, hamburgers). Packed lunches are sandwiches, fruit, gorp, cassava chips.
  • Dessert: Please purchase snacks before the expedition. There’s a shop at the nearby marina for any midday candy, snack, or ice cream urges.
  • Beverages: Juice, water, tea, and coffee may be available during mealtimes.
  • Water: Always available from taps. Please bring refillable water bottles for personal use.
SPECIAL DIETARY REQUIREMENTS

Please alert Earthwatch to any special dietary requirements (e.g., diabetes, lactose intolerance, nut or other food allergies, vegetarian or vegan diets) as soon as possible, and note them in the space provided on your volunteer forms.

LOCATION: CAMP BAHAMAS
SLEEPING

You’ll stay at Camp Bahamas in single-sex, dormitory-style cottages, each housing up to eight people. Every room contains twin bunk beds and basic shelving, air conditioning, electric ceiling fans, lights, and 110-volt outlets (you are welcome to bring electronic equipment). Pillows will be provided, but you need to bring your own your bedding (sheets, blankets, pillow cases, or sleeping bags) and towels. Kayaks and paddle boards are available, as well as a gym with volleyball and basketball courts.

* Earthwatch will honor each person’s assertion of gender identity, respectfully and without judgement. For both teen and adult teams, where logistics dictate single-sex accommodations or other facilities, participant placements will be made in accordance with the gender identity the participant specified on their Earthwatch Participant form and/or preferences indicated in discussions with Earthwatch.

BATHROOMS

Each dorm room has a communal toilet and washing area and multiple showers are available.

ELECTRICITY

As mentioned above, each dormitory/facility contains air conditioning, electric ceiling fans, lights, and 110-volt outlets. You are welcome to bring any electronic equipment but no hairdryers.

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Wireless Internet is available at Camp Bahamas. Mobile phone coverage varies in The Bahamas, but may be possible (while expensive) for some networks. You are free to bring your own cell phone.

Earthwatch encourages volunteers to minimize outgoing calls and immerse themselves in the experience; likewise, family and friends should restrict calls to urgent messages only. Emergency communications will be prioritized.

DISTANCE TO THE FIELD SITE

The field site of Savannah Sound is right off the beach of Camp Bahamas.

FOOD AND WATER

Meals will be served buffet style in a central dining area, shared by all volunteers and staff and any other groups staying at the facility. Three meals a day will be prepared by the staff but most lunches will be a field packed lunch. No alcohol is permitted at Camp Bahamas.

The following are examples of foods you may find in the field. Variety depends on availability. We appreciate your flexibility.

  • Breakfast: Cereal, yogurt, toast, bagels, eggs, grits, seasonal fruits, fruit juice.
  • Lunch and Dinner: A mix of traditional Caribbean food (e.g., rice and beans accompanying meat or poultry dishes), fresh salads, and American food (e.g., pasta, soup, hamburgers). Packed lunches are sandwiches, fruit, gorp, cassava chips.
  • Dessert: Please purchase snacks before the expedition. There’s a shop at the nearby marina for any midday candy, snack, or ice cream urges.
  • Beverages: Juice, water, tea, and coffee may be available during mealtimes.
  • Water: Always available from taps. Please bring refillable water bottles for personal use.
SPECIAL DIETARY REQUIREMENTS

Please alert Earthwatch to any special dietary requirements (e.g., diabetes, lactose intolerance, nut or other food allergies, vegetarian or vegan diets) as soon as possible, and note them in the space provided on your volunteer forms.

Project Conditions

The information that follows is as accurate as possible, but please keep in mind that conditions may change.

The Bahamas has a tropical maritime climate, which makes for generally year-round good weather. There are two seasons: summer (May–October) and winter (November–April). In the summer, days tend to get hot and muggy, but in the winter days are somewhat drier and cooler.

The hurricane season spans from the end of June through the end of November. Mosquitoes and sand flies are present on Eleuthera, so bring repellent or long clothes for protection.

GENERAL CONDITIONS

For weather and region-specific information, please visit Wunderground.com and search for your project location.

BOATING CONDITIONS

We’ll use a basic skiff without a canopy or head (bathroom). Bathroom breaks will be taken in the water. Water conditions should be relatively benign, since we work in sheltered and shallow sites. You must wear a life jacket on the boat.

Essential Eligibility Requirements

All participants must be able to:

  • Follow verbal and/or visual instructions independently or with the assistance of a companion.
  • Wear all protective equipment recommended or required by industry standards.
  • Learn to make and record observations of turtle species, behaviors, and habitats.
  • Be comfortable snorkeling in open water (two to three hours 
  • a day) where they are unable to stand on the bottom, and be comfortable using snorkeling gear (mask, fins, snorkel).
  • The ability to swim is important for safety reasons as a large portion of the project is conducted from a boat or net to the water.
  • Enter and exit the water from small boats, potentially without a ladder.
  • Work on or from a boat for about three to six hours per day with limited break options (e.g., no bathroom on the boat, except for the ocean).
  • Maintain a seated, upright position within boat during transit, which can sometimes be bumpy. This can be uncomfortable for individuals with back problems.
  • Enjoy being outdoors all day in all types of weather.
  • Be able to get along with a variety of people from different backgrounds and ages, often in close proximity, for the duration of your team
  • Endure tropical (hot and humid) work conditions.
  • Take an active role in your own safety by recognizing and avoiding hazards if and when they arise (including, but not limited to, those described in Earthwatch materials and safety briefings). Comply with project staff instructions and recommended safety measures at all times.
  • Be able to effectively communicate to the staff if you are experiencing distress or need assistance.
  • Be comfortable being surrounded by a language and/or culture that is different from your own.

Health and Safety

Accommodation has internet capabilities that are available to project staff and volunteers and staff always have a cell phone. Science team has standard protocols for emergencies (medical, approaching hurricane, etc.). The project will use personal communication equipment where appropriate (e.g. cell phone, VHF radios on boats). Mobile phones also work on much of the island.

Physician, Nurse, or EMT on Staff: Project staff members are not medical professionals, but a school nurse is available on campus and a staff member on 2021 teams will be Lifeguard certified.

Earthwatch has a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week emergency hotline number. Someone is always on call to respond to messages that come into our live answering service.

IMMUNIZATIONS & TRAVEL VACCINATIONS

Please be sure your routine immunizations are up-to-date (for example: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, rubella and varicella) and you have the appropriate vaccinations for your travel destination. Medical decisions are the responsibility of each volunteer and his or her doctor. Visit the Center for Disease Control and Prevention or the World Health Organization for guidance on immunizations.

If traveling from countries or region where yellow fever is endemic, you must have a certificate of vaccination.

Project Risks and Precautions

Transportation

Traffic accidents and injuries are always a hazard of road transport. Vans travel no faster than 45 mph on public roads. Every passenger will have a seat and must wear seat belts at all times. Volunteers will not drive; only project staff will operate vans and boats.

Terrain

The project involves some walking on rough terrain; risks include sprains, strains, or breaks due to falling or missteps. It also involves crossing or walking along mangrove creeks, potentially with fast-moving water. Project staff will highlight risks on site and curtail activities they judge too risky.

Animals

Mosquitoes and sand flies are present on Eleuthera, and repellent or long-sleeved shirts and pants can help protect from stings and bites. Fire coral, sea urchins, lionfish, jellyfish or jellies, and biting or territorial animals may be present in the water. All dangerous creatures will be introduced during the training period.

Climate/Weather

Hurricane season starts in June, but most hurricane activity occurs in late August and September. Should a hurricane watch be issued for the Bahamas, the expedition will end and team members will evacuate to Miami, Florida. Project staff will not wait for a hurricane warning to evacuate. Because of the difficulties associated with leaving an island after a storm, staff will take the most conservative approach to ensure that volunteers don’t experience undue stress or danger.

Dehydration and sunburn are possible. You’ll be briefed on proper clothing, sunscreen use, and fluid intake. Project staff sets an example and monitor participants for symptoms of exposure or dehydration. Take particular care when working during the hottest periods of the day.

Because of the high humidity, those who use a hearing aid may find that it doesn’t work properly and may wish to purchase a hearing aid dehumidifier.

Political, Social and Cultural

Project staff will advise you on local culture. They will also enforce appropriate clothing and footwear for particular situations, e.g., in settlements.

Project Tasks/ Equipment

Staff will warn you about correct lifting techniques for heavy equipment.

Working on a Boat

Boats will have appropriate safety equipment, including a personal flotation device (PFD) for each passenger. You must wear PFDs while boats are moving. Staff will brief the team on boating risks and precautions. You will be warned about wet deck surfaces and the risk of sprains, strains, or breaks from falling on the boat.

Personal Security

Robbery is a risk outside of the project site, for example, in Nassau before and after the expedition. Take taxis instead of walking and always be aware of your surroundings.

Swimming

Swimming is central to the research you’ll conduct and, possibly, during recreational time. Typical water-related risks are present. A certified lifeguard will not be available at all times, but all staff members have boat and dive safety training. Volunteers may not swim alone.

Snorkeling

Snorkeling has inherent risks, e.g., barotrauma, boat traffic, marine life, and risks specific to one’s own physical history.

When snorkeling, properly control your breathing to reduce the risk of hyperventilation and blackout. You must bring and maintain your own mask, snorkel, fins, booties, and exposure protection. Snorkel vests can be provided for those who prefer them or are required to use them. You must ensure that all gear is in good working order and that you are trained in appropriate responses if a failure occurs while in the water.

We will do a swim assessment at the beginning of each team and assign tasks accordingly. The Earthwatch scientist or support staff will be present in the water at all times with you. The buddy system is always used. Swimming and snorkeling will only happen in calm seas. No one goes in—staff or volunteers—when an Earthwatch scientist determines that conditions are unsafe.

Distance from Medical Care

The nearest medical clinic is a 40-minute drive from the accommodation. Air evacuation is required to reach the nearest fully equipped hospital, in Nassau, and it can take up to four hours to arrange transport and reach the hospital. If you have a chronic condition—which could require immediate medical care (e.g., heart conditions, kidney problems, severe asthma), please discuss your participation with your physician.

Disease

Traveler’s diarrhea affects many international travelers.

Diseases found in the Bahamas may include malaria, dengue fever, leptospirosis, and histoplasmosis. Please see the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the World Health Organization websites for more information on these conditions and how to avoid them. You can decrease your risk of most diseases above by avoiding mosquito bites, practicing good hygiene, and drinking only bottled or filtered water when appropriate. If you feel ill once you return from your trip, make sure you inform your doctor that you have recently returned from a tropical region.

Travel Planning

RENDEZVOUS LOCATION: Rock Sound Airport, Eleuthera, Bahamas

*Additional information will be provided by Earthwatch to meet your team. Please do not book travel arrangements such as flights until you have received additional information from Earthwatch.

ABOUT YOUR DESTINATION

Earthwatch strongly recommends that travelers investigate their destination prior to departure. Familiarity with the destination’s entry/exit requirements, visas, local laws, and customs can go a long way to ensuring smooth travel. The U.S. Department of State's Traveler’s Checklist and Destination Guides are helpful resources. For LGBTI travelers, the U.S. Department of State's LGBTI Travelers page contains many useful tips and links.

COUNTRY AND PROJECT ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

Entry visa requirements differ by country of origin, layover, and destination, and do change unexpectedly. For this reason, please confirm your visa requirements at the time of booking and, again, 90 days prior to travel. Please apply early for your visa (we recommend starting 6 months prior to the start of your expedition). Refunds will not be made for volunteers cancelling due to not obtaining their visa in time to meet the team at the rendezvous. You can find up to date visa requirements at the following website: www.travisa.com.

If a visa is required, participants should apply for a TOURIST visa. Please note that obtaining a visa can take weeks or even months. We strongly recommend using a visa agency, which can both expedite and simplify the process.

Generally, passports must be valid for at least six months from the date of entry and a return ticket is required.

Resources

ARTICLES
  • Mazaris, A.D., Schofield, G., Gkazinou, C., Almpanidou, V. & Hays, G.C. 2017. Global sea turtle conservation successes. Science Advances Vol. 3 (9) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600730
  • Gall, S.C. & Thompson, R.C. 2015. The impact of debris on marine life. Marine Pollution Bulletin 92: 170–179.
  • Hammann, M. et al. 2010. Global research priorities for sea turtles: informing management and conservation in the 21st century. Endangered Species Research 11: 245-269
  • Sherman, K.D., Shultz, A.D., Dahlgren, C.P., et al. Contemporary and emerging fisheries in The Bahamas—Conservation and management challenges, achievements and future directions. Fish Manag Ecol. 2018;25:319–331. https://doi.org/10.1111/fme.12299
BOOKS
  • Witherington, Blair, Wintherington, Dawn. Our Sea Turtles: A Practical Guide for the Atlantic and Gulf, from Canada to Mexico.
  • Carr, Archie. The Sea Turtle: So Excellent a Fish
FIELD GUIDES
  • Humann, Paul. Reef Coral Identification: Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas
FILMS
PROJECT-RELATED WEBSITES
PROJECT RELATED SOCIAL MEDIA
LITERATURE CITED
  • Aragones LV, Lawler IR, Foley WJ , Marsh H. 2006. Dugong grazing and turtle cropping: grazing optimization in tropical seagrass systems? Oecologia. 149:635–647.
  • Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Chaloupka MY. 2000. Green turtle somatic growth model: evidence for density dependence. Ecological Applications 10:269-282.
  • Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB. 2010. Hawksbill sea turtles in seagrass pastures: success in a peripheral habitat. Marine Biology. 157:135-145.
  • Hamann M, Godfrey MH, Seminoff JA, Arthur K, Barata PCR, Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Broderick AC, Campbell LM, Carreras C, Casale P, Chaloupka M, Chan SKF, Coyne MS, Crowder LB, Diez CE, Dutton PH, Epperly SP, FitzSimmons NN, Formia A, Girondot M, Hays GC, Cheng IJ, Kaska Y, Lewison R, Mortimer JA, Nichols WJ, Reina RD, Shanker K, Spotila JR, Tomás J, Wallace BP, Work TM, Zbinden J, Godley BJ. 2010. Global research priorities for sea turtles: informing management and conservation in the 21st century. Endangered Species Research. 11: 245–269.
  • Heithaus MR, Frid A, Wirsing AJ, Dill LM, Fourqurean JW, Burkholder D, Thomson J, Bejder OL. 2007. State-dependent risk-taking by green sea turtles mediates top-down effects of tiger shark intimidation in a marine ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology. 76(5)837-844.
  • Kubis S, Chaloupka M, Ehrhart L, Bresette M. 2009. Growth rates of juvenile green turtles Chelonia mydas from three ecologically distinct foraging habitats along the east central coast of Florida, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 389:257–269.
  • Moran KL, Bjorndal KA. 2005. Simulated green turtle grazing affects structure and productivity of seagrass pastures. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 305: 235–247.
  • Wallace BP, DiMatteo AD, Bolten AB, Chaloupka MY, Hutchinson BJ, Abreu-Grobois A, Mortimer JA, Seminoff JA, Amorocho D, Bjorndal KA, Bourjea J, Bowen BW, Briseno Duenas R, Casale P, Choudhury BC, Costa A, Dutton PH, Fallabrino A, Finkbeiner EM, Girard A, Girondot M, Hamann M, Hurley BJ, Lopez-Mendilaharsu M, Marcovaldi MA, Musick JA, Nel R, Pilcher NJ, Troeng S, Witherington B, Mast RB. 2011. Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24510. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024510.