The research site is in Wytham Woods in rural Oxfordshire, England - an estate composed of 775 hectares (1,900 acres) of ancient woodland, secondary woodland, conifer plantations, grassland, rivers, ponds, and farmland. The ancient woodland has been forested since prehistoric times. Wytham Woods has been owned by the University of Oxford since the 1940s and is one of the most researched areas of woodland in the world. More than 3,800 vertebrate and invertebrate animal species (including 800 butterflies and moths) and 600 plant species have been recorded there. Wytham has a wealth of long-term biological data, with bird data dating back for over 60 years, badger data for over 30 years, and climate change data for the last 18 years.